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Mechanisms of Toxicity


May 31, 2012 9:50am ‐ May 31, 2012 12:25pm


Credits: None available.

Description

Learning Objectives:

  • Can you describe the principle functions of mitochondria and how they can be affected by drugs?
  • Can you list the most important clinical pictures associated with mitochondrial toxicity?
  • Can you review important risk factors associated with mitochondrial toxicity of drugs?
  • Can you describe how cells communicate through connexin-mediated gap junctions?
  • Can you discuss the importance in a tissue of protective closure of such communication under conditions of cellular stress?
  • Can you outline the Achilles' heel of sustained closure of inter-cell communication in the development of cancer?
  • Can you list 3 mechanisms of high dose insulin therapy in calcium channel and beta blocker poisoning?
  • Can you describe the optimal cardiovascular patient presentation in which to use high dose insulin therapy in a calcium channel blocker or beta blocker poisoning?
  • Can you identify two scenarios in which high dose insulin therapy may not be the optimal antidote for calcium channel and beta blocker poisoning?
  • Can you list the mechanisms of toxicity for the classic insecticides?
  • Can you describe how the relatively low human toxicity of modern insecticides depends on selective interactions with insert receptors or with inhibition of processes that do not occur in humans?
  • Can you discuss how most modern herbicides inhibit plant-specific metabolic processes/pathways and therefore have little direct human poisoning?
  • Can you describe the features of thallium poisoning?
  • Can you outline the mechanisms of thallium toxicity?
  • Can you correlate the mechanisms of toxicity and the observed features of thallium poisoning?
  • Can you describe the basic mechanistic work that has shown the likelihood that diglycolic acid is the nephrotoxic metabolite of diethlene glycol poisoning?
  • Can you outline the importance of intracellular transport of diglycolic acid and how inhibitors of such transport might be useful new therapies for the renal toxicity of diethylene glycol?
  • Can you outline the importance of calcium oxalate monohydrate in producing the renal toxicity of ethylene glycol?
  • Can you review the efficacy of intravenous fructose, 1,6 diphosphate on survival of propranolol poisoned rodents?

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